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According to the untruthfulness condition, lying requires that aperson make an untruthful statement, that is, make astatement that she believes to be false. Note that thiscondition is to be distinguished from the putative necessary conditionfor lying that the statement that the person makes be false(Grotius 2005, 1209; Krishna 1961, 146). The falsity condition is nota necessary condition for lying according to L1.

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L1 is the traditional definition of lying. According to L1, thereare at least four necessary conditions for lying. First, lying requiresthat a person make a statement (statement condition). Second, lyingrequires that the person believe the statement to be false; that is,lying requires that the statement be untruthful (untruthfulnesscondition). Third, lying requires that the untruthful statement be madeto another person (addressee condition). Fourth, lying requires thatthe person intend that that other person believe the untruthfulstatement to be true (intention to deceive the addresseecondition).

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Against this condition it has also been objected that although thereis “a necessary relationship between lying and deception,”nevertheless this intention should be understood merely as theintention to be deceptive to another person, which is theintention “to conceal information” from the otherperson (Lackey 2013, 5–7). According to this objection, concealingevidence, understood as hiding evidence or keeping evidence secret,counts as being deceptive to another person. L1 could be modified, asfollows: