Abstract: In his book "The Crisis of the European Union", Jurgen Habermas explored the options available for the European Union in dealing with the global crisis. The author structured his approach on two essays. The first one, entitled "The Crisis of the European Union in Light of a Constitutionalization of International Law - An Essay on the Constitution for Europe", emphasizes the fact that while the European decisionmakers have focused on solving the currency, banking and debt crises, they omitted the political dimension of the crisis. Moreover, the author considers that in the light of a constitutional treaty for Europe, the transnationalization of the European democracy will be possible if both the public opinion and the politicians can overcome three categories of preconceptions: the dependence of the popular sovereignty to the state sovereignty, the mutually exclusive status of the European citizenship and of the national one, the indivisible nature of the sovereignty. The second essay, entitled "The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights" underlines the imperative nature of the human rights and human dignity interconnected concepts. He states that two conditions must be met in order for the concepts to be valid. Habermas considers that there must be a political community that enacts them and that the two concepts are universally accepted. The Appendix includes three recent political interventions through which Habermas reiterates the uncomfortable and controversial topic of European unification. He concludes that the European Project cannot be allowed to fail because of the raise of German nationalism and the lack of visionary European leadership.
For a section-by-section legislative intent analysis of the Constitution, consult . This reference guide also includes an essay on "The Constitutional History of New York" and a bibliographical essay on the Constitution and its various amendments.
An Essay on the Constitution and the
Since McGee's essay was published, a number of studies have investigatedthe formation of peoples in specific historical rhetorics and advancedour theoretical understanding of how "the people" function as a rhetoricalcommonplace. For example, one influential investigation of this kindwas reported by Maurice Charland in his essay on the constitution of theQuebecois as a resistant social movement rooted in the story of a particularpeople. Charland's essay highlights the theoretical contributionto rhetorical theory made by the postmodern critique of the transcendentalsubject, namely a new understanding of the audience as rhetorically constitutedand thus historically and socially situated, rather than as an extra-rhetoricalentity whose reason governs its response to persuasive appeals. Sucha rhetorically constituted audience is already an incipient feature ofKenneth Burke's replacement of persuasion with identification as the basisof rhetorical practice, according to Charland, and is "logically priorto persuasion" and thus also to reason and even consciousness. Thus,for an audience to come to understand itself as a people or as subjects,it must already be the effect of a political narrative that constitutesthem as subjects capable of choice and action. Such an understandingof the rhetorical formation of audiences offers rich possibilities forthe analysis of social movements, political campaigns, and other practicesof deliberative and ceremonial rhetoric.